Although the literature composed in the Renaissance era, the revival of the inner spirit of the literature of ancient Greece and Rome is visible in the literature, many new features are visible in the literature of this period which are unprecedented in themselves and the messengers of the new age Huh. These new features of Renaissance era literature are:
(i) Humanistic consciousness
The main concern of litterateurs in this period is not the rendering of religious subjects. The tone of humanistic consciousness is seen in the compositions of this period, that is, the portrayal of daily, real and direct experiences, problems and aspirations of human life is prominent in literature. The literature of the Renaissance era moved out of the circle of the rigid and mystical medieval traditions of religion, towards the real beauty and sufferings of human life.
(ii) The rise of indigenous (national) languages: Some of the literature of the Renaissance era was written in the ancient classical languages Latin and Greek, but a large part of the literature – indigenous languages, such as Italian, French, English, German, Spanish, Written in Portuguese, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish etc. It is a product of the Renaissance that in this era, a lot of literature was created in these indigenous and colloquial languages, and after some time these languages became the status of national languages, and became the basis of the development of national institutions.
(iii) Study and Development of Linguistics: Another feature of Renaissance literature is the study of the scientific basis of the creation and development of languages. In this period, along with the interest in linguistic analysis of the classical languages Greek and Latin, an attempt was made to establish newly developed European national languages on strong scientific grounds. In the sixteenth century French, German, Spanish, Italian and other languages Scientific dictionaries were prepared.
(01) Renaissance era literature in Italy
The Renaissance era in Italy led to three major litterateurs – Date (1265–1321 AD); Patrarch (1304– 1374 AD); And Boccasio (1313–1375 AD). The famous work of Dante (1265-1321) is an epic called ‘Divine Kamedi’. Dante did not write this work in Latin, the language of the classical language or educated class, but in Italian, the language of the common people. It was the first important work written in Italian, so Dante is called the ‘father of Italian poetry’. The Divine Comedy describes the state of the soul after death, when it has to travel to hell, the place of sin, and heaven. Superficially, the theme of this epic is religious and medieval, but from the point of view of interest it has many elements of human consciousness (characteristic of modern era), such as human being responsible for his own happiness, sorrow, human Importance of love etc. J.A. In the words of Simondes (Renaissance in Italy: Italian Literature), the subject of ‘divine comedies’ is symbolic, in the sense that a person is rewarded or punished on the basis of virtue and demerit in the process of complying with his free will. Bhagi is made. ’Henry S. According to Lucas (The Renaissance and the Reformation), “Although Dante’s ideas were medieval, Dante served as a powerful influence-source for humanists in the following centuries.” Some scholars consider the beginning of the Renaissance not from Dante, but from Patrarch, because according to him the religious element is prominent in Dante’s work. But many other scholars believe that the beginning of the Renaissance should be considered from Dante itself, because the subject-rendering of his creation ‘Divine Comedy’, despite being religious, had humanistic elements or sources of new consciousness existing in the subtle and elusive form of the historian Scapiro and In the words of Maurice (Civilization in Europe), ‘Dante, the Italian poet, was the last and greatest among medieval writers. But at the same time he was also the announcer of Naveen Usha.
Petrarch (1304–1374 AD) is called the ‘pioneer of humanism’, as he first established cosmic themes in his literary thoughts and creations, replacing traditional religious thinking, whose central axis was an independent working human. ‘Sanates to Lora’ (songwriters named after Lora) written in Italian by Petrarch is a poignant and unique document of human feelings of cosmic love. This spontaneous human depiction of love became a role model for later writers. The poetry called ‘sanet’ (lyric or short lyric) used by Patrarch also became very popular among later poets. Other poems and songs of Patrach have also highlighted other aspects of life such as the natural beauty of nature, the feeling of patriotism towards Italy, etc. Patrach’s Secular Thinking Greek
Awakened from his deep interest; It is said that he discovered humanism from this classical literature. Patrarch spent a lot of time searching and collecting old handwritten texts of classical literature. He wrote a book based on the biographies of thirty-one prominent figures in Roman history, entitled ‘Lives of Illustrious Men’. In addition, he wrote several letters to the names of ancient classical writers – Homer, Livy, Ovid, Cicero, Varo, Vargill and Senesa, published under the title ‘Familial Letters’. Patrach made several important efforts to reveal the beauty and importance of classical literature to the public anew.